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4.8: Other Eukaryotic Components - Biology

4.8: Other Eukaryotic Components - Biology


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4.8: Other Eukaryotic Components

4.8: Other Eukaryotic Components - Biology

A eukaryotic cell has a true membrane-bound nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmentalization of functions.

Learning Objectives

Describe the structure of eukaryotic cells

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells and have a “true” nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, and rod-shaped chromosomes.
  • The nucleus houses the cell’s DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins and ribosomes.
  • Mitochondria are responsible for ATP production the endoplasmic reticulum modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids and the golgi apparatus is where the sorting of lipids and proteins takes place.
  • Peroxisomes carry out oxidation reactions that break down fatty acids and amino acids and detoxify poisons vesicles and vacuoles function in storage and transport.
  • Animal cells have a centrosome and lysosomes while plant cells do not.
  • Plant cells have a cell wall, a large central vacuole, chloroplasts, and other specialized plastids, whereas animal cells do not.

Key Terms

  • eukaryotic: Having complex cells in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei.
  • organelle: A specialized structure found inside cells that carries out a specific life process (e.g. ribosomes, vacuoles).
  • photosynthesis: the process by which plants and other photoautotrophs generate carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy in chloroplasts

Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. However, unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have:

  1. a membrane-bound nucleus
  2. numerous membrane-bound organelles (including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria)
  3. several rod-shaped chromosomes

Because a eukaryotic cell’s nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, it is often said to have a “true nucleus. ” Organelles (meaning “little organ”) have specialized cellular roles, just as the organs of your body have specialized roles. They allow different functions to be compartmentalized in different areas of the cell.

The Nucleus & Its Structures

Typically, the nucleus is the most prominent organelle in a cell. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, which means the cell’s DNA is surrounded by a membrane. Therefore, the nucleus houses the cell’s DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins and ribosomes, the cellular organelles responsible for protein synthesis. The nuclear envelope is a double-membrane structure that constitutes the outermost portion of the nucleus. Both the inner and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope are phospholipid bilayers. The nuclear envelope is punctuated with pores that control the passage of ions, molecules, and RNA between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is the semi-solid fluid inside the nucleus where we find the chromatin and the nucleolus. Furthermore, chromosomes are structures within the nucleus that are made up of DNA, the genetic material. In prokaryotes, DNA is organized into a single circular chromosome. In eukaryotes, chromosomes are linear structures.

Eukaryotic Nucleus: The nucleus stores chromatin (DNA plus proteins) in a gel-like substance called the nucleoplasm.The nucleolus is a condensed region of chromatin where ribosome synthesis occurs.The boundary of the nucleus is called the nuclear envelope.It consists of two phospholipid bilayers: an outer membrane and an inner membrane.The nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.Nuclear pores allow substances to enter and exit the nucleus.

Other Membrane-Bound Organelles

Mitochondria are oval-shaped, double membrane organelles that have their own ribosomes and DNA. These organelles are often called the “energy factories” of a cell because they are responsible for making adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy-carrying molecule, by conducting cellular respiration. The endoplasmic reticulum modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids, while the golgi apparatus is where the sorting, tagging, packaging, and distribution of lipids and proteins takes place. Peroxisomes are small, round organelles enclosed by single membranes they carry out oxidation reactions that break down fatty acids and amino acids. Peroxisomes also detoxify many poisons that may enter the body. Vesicles and vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs that function in storage and transport. Other than the fact that vacuoles are somewhat larger than vesicles, there is a very subtle distinction between them: the membranes of vesicles can fuse with either the plasma membrane or other membrane systems within the cell. All of these organelles are found in each and every eukaryotic cell.

Animal Cells Versus Plant Cells

While all eukaryotic cells contain the aforementioned organelles and structures, there are some striking differences between animal and plant cells. Animal cells have a centrosome and lysosomes, whereas plant cells do not. The centrosome is a microtubule-organizing center found near the nuclei of animal cells while lysosomes take care of the cell’s digestive process.

Animal Cells: Despite their fundamental similarities, there are some striking differences between animal and plant cells.Animal cells have centrioles, centrosomes, and lysosomes, whereas plant cells do not.

In addition, plant cells have a cell wall, a large central vacuole, chloroplasts, and other specialized plastids, whereas animal cells do not. The cell wall protects the cell, provides structural support, and gives shape to the cell while the central vacuole plays a key role in regulating the cell’s concentration of water in changing environmental conditions. Chloroplasts are the organelles that carry out photosynthesis.

Plant Cells: Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts, plasmodesmata, and plastids used for storage, and a large central vacuole, whereas animal cells do not.


The supergroups of eukaryotes and the root of the eukaryotic evolutionary tree

Although several eukaryotic kingdoms, such as animals, fungi, plants and ciliates, are well defined and seem to be monophyletic beyond reasonable doubt, deciphering the evolutionary relationships between these kingdoms and numerous other groups of unicellular eukaryotes (also called protists) turned out to be daunting. For many years, evolutionary biologists tended to favor the so called crown group phylogeny [2, 32]. The 'crown' of this evolutionary tree included animals (Metazoa) and plants (Viridiplantae), fungi and various assortments of protists, depending on the methods used for tree construction [33, 34]. The rest of the protists, such as microsporidia, diplomonads and parabasalia, were considered 'early branching eukaryotes' for some of them, this conclusion was reached because they appeared to lack mitochondria and were therefore thought to have evolved before the mitochondrial symbiosis. The scenario resulting from the crown group phylogeny was called the archezoan scenario: the archaezoan was defined as a hypothetical ancestral form that lacked mitochondria but possessed the other signature features of the eukaryotic cell. However, during the past decade, the early branching groups have lost their positions at the root of the eukaryotic tree, one after another [35–37]. The improved taxon sampling as a result of genome sequencing together with new, more robust methods for phylogenetic analysis indicate that the deep placing of these groups seen in early trees was a long-branch artifact caused by the fast evolution of the respective organisms [37–39]. At the same time, comparative-genomic and ultrastructural studies destroyed the biological underpinning of the near-root positions of the (former) early branching groups of protists by showing that none of them ancestrally lack mitochondria, as they all have genes of apparent mitochondrial origin and mitochondria-related organelles, such as hydrogenosomes and mitosomes [11, 12, 13, 40].

There are therefore no grounds to consider any group of eukaryotes primitive, a presymbiotic archezoan. Rather, taking into account the small genomes and high rate of evolution characteristic of most of the protist groups thought to be early branching, and their parasitic lifestyle, it is becoming increasingly clear that most or perhaps all of them evolved from more complex ancestral forms by reductive evolution [37, 39]. Reductive evolution refers to the evolutionary modality typical of parasites: they tend to lose genes, organelles and functions when the respective functionalities are taken over by the host. So the archezoan (crown group) phylogeny seems to have been disproved, and deep phylogeny and the theories of the origin of eukaryotes effectively had to start from scratch.

This time phylogenomic approaches were mainly used, that is, phylogenetic analysis of genome-wide sets of conserved genes this was made possible by the much larger number of genomes that had been sequenced [41, 42]. The key accomplishment at this new stage was the proposal of 'supergroups' of eukaryotes that are suggested to combine highly diverse groups of organisms in a monophyletic group [36, 43–45]. Most of the phylogenomic analyses published so far converge on five supergroups (or six if the Amoebozoa and Opisthokonts do not form a single supergroup, the Unikonts Figure 1). Although proving monophyly is non-trivial for these groups [46–48], the general structure of the tree, with a few supergroups forming a star-like phylogeny (Figure 1), is reproduced consistently, and the latest results [49–52] seem to support the monophyly of the five supergroups.

Evolution of the eukaryotes. The relationship between the five eukaryotic supergroups - Excavates, Rhizaria, Unikonts, Chromalveolates and Plantae - are shown as a star phylogeny with LECA placed in the center. The 4,134 genes assigned to LECA are those shared by the free-living excavate amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi with representatives of at least one other supergroup [67]. The numbers of these putative ancestral genes retained in selected lineages from different supergroups are also indicated. Branch lengths are arbitrary. Two putative root positions are shown: I, the Unikont-Bikont rooting [56, 57] II, rooting at the base of Plantae [60].

The relationship between the supergroups is a formidable problem as the internal branches are extremely short, suggesting that the radiation of the supergroups occurred rapidly (on the evolutionary scale), perhaps resembling an evolutionary 'big bang' [53–55]. Two recent, independent phylogenetic studies [51, 52] each analyzed over 130 conserved proteins from several dozen eukaryotic species and, after exploring the effects of removing fast-evolving taxa, arrived at a three-megagroup structure of the eukaryotic tree. The megagroups consist of Unikonts, Excavates, and the assemblage of Plantae, Chromalveolata and Rhizaria [51, 52].

Furthermore, there have been several attempts to infer the position of the root of the eukaryotic tree (Figure 1). The first alternative to the crown group tree was proposed by Cavalier-Smith and coworkers [56–58], who used rare genomic changes (RGCs) [59], such as the fusion of two enzyme genes [56, 57] and the domain structure of myosins [58], to place the root between the Unikonts and the rest of eukaryotes (I (red arrow) in Figure 1). This separation seems biologically plausible because Unikont cells have a single cilium, whereas all other eukaryotic cells have two. However, this conclusion could be suspect because the use of only a few RGCs makes it difficult to rule out homoplasy (parallel emergence of the same RGC, such as gene fusion or fission, in different lineages). Rogozin and coworkers [60] used a different RGC approach based on rare replacements of highly conserved amino acid residues requiring two nucleotide substitutions and inferred the most likely position of the root to be between Plantae and the rest of eukaryotes (II (green arrow) in Figure 1). Again, this seems biologically plausible because the cyanobacterial endosymbiosis that gave rise to plastids occurred on the Plantae lineage.

The controversy about the root position and the lack of consensus regarding the monophyly of at least some of the supergroups, let alone the megagroups, indicate that, despite the emerging clues, the deep phylogeny of eukaryotes currently should be considered unresolved. In a sense, given the likely 'big bang' of early eukaryote radiation, the branching order of the supergroups, in itself, might be viewed as relatively unimportant [61]. However, the biological events that triggered these early radiations are of major interest, so earnest attempts to resolve the deepest branches of the eukaryotic tree will undoubtedly continue with larger and further improved datasets and methods.


Intermediate Filaments and Microtubules

Microtubules are part of the cell’s cytoskeleton, helping the cell resist compression, move vesicles, and separate chromosomes at mitosis.

Learning Objectives

Describe the roles of microtubules as part of the cell’s cytoskeleton

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Microtubules help the cell resist compression, provide a track along which vesicles can move throughout the cell, and are the components of cilia and flagella.
  • Cilia and flagella are hair-like structures that assist with locomotion in some cells, as well as line various structures to trap particles.
  • The structures of cilia and flagella are a 𔄡+2 array,” meaning that a ring of nine microtubules is surrounded by two more microtubules.
  • Microtubules attach to replicated chromosomes during cell division and pull them apart to opposite ends of the pole, allowing the cell to divide with a complete set of chromosomes in each daughter cell.

Key Terms

  • microtubule: Small tubes made of protein and found in cells part of the cytoskeleton
  • flagellum: a flagellum is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  • cytoskeleton: A cellular structure like a skeleton, contained within the cytoplasm.

Micrtubule Structure: Microtubules are hollow, with walls consisting of 13 polymerized dimers of α-tubulin and β-tubulin (right image). The left image shows the molecular structure of the tube.

Microtubules

As their name implies, microtubules are small hollow tubes. Microtubules, along with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, come under the class of organelles known as the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is the framework of the cell which forms the structural supporting component. Microtubules are the largest element of the cytoskeleton. The walls of the microtubule are made of polymerized dimers of α-tubulin and β-tubulin, two globular proteins. With a diameter of about 25 nm, microtubules are the widest components of the cytoskeleton. They help the cell resist compression, provide a track along which vesicles move through the cell, and pull replicated chromosomes to opposite ends of a dividing cell. Like microfilaments, microtubules can dissolve and reform quickly.

Stained Keratin Intermediate filaments: Keratin cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are concentrated around the edge of the cells and merge into the surface membrane. This network of intermediate filaments from cell to cell holds together tissues like skin.

Microtubules are also the structural elements of flagella, cilia, and centrioles (the latter are the two perpendicular bodies of the centrosome ). In animal cells, the centrosome is the microtubule-organizing center. In eukaryotic cells, flagella and cilia are quite different structurally from their counterparts in prokaryotes.

Intermediate Filaments

Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal components found in animal cells. They are composed of a family of related proteins sharing common structural and sequence features. Intermediate filaments have an average diameter of 10 nanometers, which is between that of 7 nm actin (microfilaments), and that of 25 nm microtubules, although they were initially designated ‘intermediate’ because their average diameter is between those of narrower microfilaments (actin) and wider myosin filaments found in muscle cells. Intermediate filaments contribute to cellular structural elements and are often crucial in holding together tissues like skin.

Microtubules are the structural component of flagella: This transmission electron micrograph of two flagella shows the 9 + 2 array of microtubules: nine microtubule doublets surround a single microtubule doublet.

Flagella and Cilia

Flagella (singular = flagellum ) are long, hair-like structures that extend from the plasma membrane and are used to move an entire cell (for example, sperm, Euglena). When present, the cell has just one flagellum or a few flagella. When cilia (singular = cilium) are present, however, many of them extend along the entire surface of the plasma membrane. They are short, hair-like structures that are used to move entire cells (such as paramecia) or substances along the outer surface of the cell (for example, the cilia of cells lining the Fallopian tubes that move the ovum toward the uterus, or cilia lining the cells of the respiratory tract that trap particulate matter and move it toward your nostrils).

Despite their differences in length and number, flagella and cilia share a common structural arrangement of microtubules called a 𔄡 + 2 array.” This is an appropriate name because a single flagellum or cilium is made of a ring of nine microtubule doublets surrounding a single microtubule doublet in the center.


Differences among the Eukaryotic cells

The structure described above is seen in the case of an ideal animal cell. however, cells of other eukaryotes may have some additional components or may lack one of the organelles described above. In this section, we will discuss the difference between an animal cell and that of other eukaryotes.

Plant Cell

Here are some of the characteristics of a plant cell that differentiate it from animal cells.

It is the most distinguishing characteristic of a plant cell. All the plant cells are surrounded by a very strong cell wall made up of cellulose and hemicellulose. The cell wall makes the plant cells rigid so that they cannot be deformed. This is the reason why plant cells can bear hydrostatic pressure when placed in a hypotonic environment and do not burst.

Chloroplast

These are the double membrane-bound organelles only seen in plant cells. These are the factories of photosynthesis. The photosynthetic pigments present in the chloroplasts absorb sunlight and use this energy to convert water, and carbon dioxide to glucose along with oxygen.

Another important difference between an animal and a plant cell is the presence of vacuole. Plant cells have a large central vacuole that stores food, water, and other nutrients. the nucleus is pushed to one side of the cell. On the other hand, animal cells have a central nucleus with various small scattered vacuoles in the cytoplasm.

Fungal cells

Following are some differences between an animal cell and a fungal cell.

Like plant cells, fungal cells are also surrounded by a thick and rigid cell wall that is not found in animal cells. However, the fungal cell wall is different from the one found in plant cells. The fungal cell wall is made up of chitin instead of cellulose.

Cells of Protista

It is a kingdom of eukaryotes having very diverse characteristics. The organisms of the kingdom Protista resemble prokaryotes in many ways. However, they are called eukaryotes because they have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

The organisms included in the kingdom Protista are of two types, animal-like and plant-like. The following are some additional features of plant-like protists that are not seen in animal cells.

They have a cell wall around their cells that is made up of cellulose and other similar polysaccharides.

Chloroplasts

This photosynthetic machinery is also found in plant-like protists. It has a similar structure as that of chloroplasts seen in plant cells.


Fourth Year

Course List
Code Title Hours
Fall Semester Credit Hours
ED 495Block 1 - Co-Teaching Practicum for Certification Candidates (EL) requires minimum grade of 'C' 3
ED 331Classroom and Behavior Management requires minimum grade of 'C' 3
BIOL 472Introduction to Forensic Science requires minimum grade of 'C' 3
Upper Division Elective (300-400 level) requires minimum grade of 'C' 3-4
Elective - Upper or Lower Division as needed to meet upper division and overall requirement requires minimum grade of 'C' 3
Fall Total Semester Credit Hours 15-16
Spring Semester Credit Hours
ED 496Block 2 - Co-Teaching Practicum for Certification Candidates (EL) requires minimum grade of 'C' 3
SPED 418Research, Trends, and Issues in Education requires minimum grade of 'C' 3
Spring Total Semester Credit Hours 6
Total Fourth Year Semester Credit Hours 21
Total Semester Credit Hours required for Degree 121
Note: The following courses are included in the major GPA calculation: BIOL 472

Minimum Grade of "C" is required in all Major, ED, RDG, SPED, and Professional Development course

Note: A minimum of 54 upper division hours (300 and 400 level courses) are required for this degree. Resident credit totaling 25% of the hours is required for the degree. A minimum GPA of 2.0 is required in three areas for graduation: Overall GPA, Institutional GPA, and Major GPA.

Undergraduate courses in Biology 4-8 Science Certification

BIOL 1106. Biology for Science Majors I Lab. 1 Hour.

This course provides students with hands-on exploration in the biological sciences. Content includes the process of scientific inquiry, important concepts in biochemistry and genetics, and introduction to laboratory techniques. Corequisite: BIOL 1306.

BIOL 1107. Biology for Science Majors II Lab. 1 Hour.

This course provides students with hands-on exploration in the biological sciences. Content includes a survey of plants, animals, and microorganisms as well as studies of basic biological processes such as digestion, circulation, and nervous system function. Corequisite: BIOL 1307.

BIOL 1108. Biology for Non-science Majors I Lab. 1 Hour.

This course provides students with hands-on exploration in the biological sciences. Content includes the process of scientific inquiry, important concepts in biochemistry and genetics, and introduction to laboratory techniques. Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 1308.

BIOL 1109. Biology for Non-science Majors II Lab. 1 Hour.

This course provides students with hands-on exploration in the biological sciences. Content includes the process of scientific inquiry, important concepts in biochemistry and genetics, and introduction to laboratory techniques. Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 1309.

BIOL 1306. Biology for Science Majors I. 3 Hours.

This course introduces the student to the nature of science and the application of science to contemporary issues. Content includes the chemistry of life, the cell, genetics, and mechanisms of evolution. Corequisite: BIOL 1106.

BIOL 1307. Biology for Science Majors II. 3 Hours.

This course introduces the student to the nature of science and the application of science to contemporary issues. Content includes plant form and function, animal form and function, and ecology. Prerequisite: BIOL 1306. Corequisite: BIOL 1107.

BIOL 1308. Biology for Non-Science Majors I. 3 Hours.

This course introduces the student to the nature of science and the application of science to contemporary issues. Content includes the chemistry of life, the cell, genetics, and mechanisms of evolution. NOTE: Lab may be required for specific majors.

BIOL 1309. Biology for Non-Science Majors II. 3 Hours.

This course introduces the student to the nature of science and the application of science to contemporary issues. Content includes plant form and function, animal form and function, and ecology. NOTE: Lab may be required for specific majors. Prerequisite: BIOL 1308.

BIOL 2401. Human Anatomy and Physiology I. 4 Hours.

This course covers basic human anatomy and physiological principles focusing on the cellular and tissue levels and their integration into the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. C or better in BIOL 1306 or 35 or better on the Biology Readiness test.

BIOL 2402. Human Anatomy and Physiology II. 4 Hours.

This course covers basic human anatomy and physiological principles focusing on the nervous, endocrine, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, urinary, and reproductive organ systems. Prerequisite: C or better in BIOL 2401.

BIOL 2405. Introduction to Microbiology. 4 Hours.

This is an introductory microbiology course consisting of lecture and laboratory sessions and designed for the non-biology majors and allied health students. Topics include the morphology, physiology, and taxonomy of representative groups of pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms human-microbe interactions public health microbiology and host defense mechanisms. BIOL 1306 is recommended prior to BIOL 2405.

BIOL 2406. Environmental Biology. 3 Hours.

This course provides an introduction to the basic principles of bioenvironmental science with emphasis on scientific literacy, current events, global and international issues, historic context, and the relationship between humans and the natural world. The course will also address conservation, pollution, energy, and other contemporary environmental problems.

BIOL 289. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

This course provides individual instruction. Students may repeat the course when topics vary.

BIOL 303. Animal Nutrition. 3 Hours.

This is a course designed to introduce the study of animal nutrition in all aspects, and is designed for Biology majors, especially those interested in Veterinary school. Topics include the nutrition of companion animals, livestock, and exotic species. Topics will also include the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the gastrointestinal system, nutrient procurement and use, feed additives, growth stimulants, metabolic diseases, and diet therapy. Prerequisites: BIOL 1306, BIOL 1307, BIOL 1106, BIOL 1107 or equivalent.

BIOL 307. General Ecology. 3 Hours.

This course covers the principles of ecology with special reference to populations and their ecosystems, distribution, biotic communities, and environmental relationships. This course requires field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 1306 and BIOL 1106, and BIOL 1307 and BIOL 1107.

BIOL 308. Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

This course explores the diversity of invertebrate types, morphologically, embryologically, and physiologically. The course emphasizes the ecological role of invertebrates. Prerequisite: BIOL 1306 and BIOL 1106, and BIOL 1307 and BIOL 1107.

BIOL 310. Genetics (EL). 4 Hours.

This course deals with the principles of heredity and variation and their application to plants, lower animals and man. This course integrates the principles of experiential learning and meets the criteria for undergradute research. Prerequisite: 8 SCH of Biology.

BIOL 311. General Microbiology. 4 Hours.

General Microbiology is an upper division undergraduate course on microbial biology consisting of both lectures and laboratory activities. In depth lectures cover eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes and viruses, but emphasis is put on bacteria. This course provides a conceptual and experimental background in microbiology. This course is highly recommended for the pre-medical and pre-pharmacy students. Prerequisite: Successful completion of two semesters of Biology.

BIOL 312. Botany. 4 Hours.

This upper division course presents a solid core of plant biology consisting of lectures and laboratory activities. The course contents encompass the areas of plant cell and tissue structure, development, differentiation, tissue culture, genetic engineering, and dynamic processes associated with higher green plants. The course blends with an account of the interrelationships between plants and people. Prerequisite: Two semesters of biology.

BIOL 330. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. 4 Hours.

Introduces the concepts and applications of computer-based spatial data handling, known as geographic information systems (GIS) technology. Illustrates the essential methods of GIS and its applications in fields including geography, natural resource management, planning and environmental science. Students gain application skills via a series of practical exercises illustrating problem-solving strategies using up-to-date GIS software packages. Lectures, laboratories, and special assignments will be utilized in this course. Pre-requisites: MATH 1314.

BIOL 332. Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology. 3 Hours.

This course will provide an overview of pharmacology based on principles of drug action with emphasis on drug classes. Topics include pharmacology of the autonomic, cardiovascular, central nervous and endocrine systems. Prerequisites: BIOL 1306 & 1106, BIOL 1307 & 1107 and BIOL 2401 & 2402 or BIOL 449.

BIOL 335. Medical Terminology. 3 Hours.

This web-based course utilizes a systems approach to the language of medicine, including the analysis and utilization of word roots, combining forms, prefixes, suffixes, and medical terms emphasis is on written and spoken medical vocabulary. Prerequisite: Completion of two semesters of Biology courses.

BIOL 343. Practical Paleontology. 3 Hours.

Designed for students with an interest in fossils and how they can be used to reconstruct ancient ecosystems. This course covers principles of fossil data collection, preparation, conservation, and management with hands-on experience collecting fossils from the Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas area. Practice fossil preparation skills and learn to identify fossils based on published descriptions. Students will be introduced to paleontological research using the fossils they find in two brief guided research project. Prerequisite: BIOL 1307 or equivalent or instructor's permission.

BIOL 402. Cell and Molecular Biology. 4 Hours.

This course consists of lectures and laboratory activities and will provide a strong background in the cellular and molecular aspects of biology. Topics include: methods in cellular and molecular biology, transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, posttranscriptional events, translation, DNA replication, and recombination. Prerequisite: 8 SCH of Biology.

BIOL 415. Darwin and the Origin of Species. 3 Hours.

This course will focus on Darwin's hypotheses and compare his ideas with modern developments in the study of biological evolution.

BIOL 420. Global Change (EL). 3 Hours.

This course will focus on global change. Major topics covered include climate change, sea level change/coastal inundation, ocean acidification, and permafrost and the changing Arctic. This course integrates the principles of Experiential Learning (EL) and meets the criteria for project-based research. Prerequisite: 6 SCH of Biology.

BIOL 421. Endangered Ecosystems. 3 Hours.

This course will focus on endangered ecosystems and organisms from around the world. Coral reefs, Brazilian rain forest destruction, amphibian crisis, and the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone will be studied in detail. Prerequisite: 6 SCH in Biology.

BIOL 422. Atmosphere and Biosphere. 3 Hours.

This course will focus on how the atmosphere affects the biosphere. Stratospheric ozone, black carbon (soot), El Nino, and the environmental impact of carbon monoxide will be studied in detail. Prerequisite: 6 SCH of Biology.

BIOL 425. Immunology. 4 Hours.

This is a course designed to introduce the immune system in all its aspects and is designed for the allied health students and biology majors. Topics include innate and adaptive immunity, generation of antibody and lymphocyte diversity, signaling molecules, cellular and humoral immunity, immunological failure in disease, and manipulation of immunity.

BIOL 430. Astrobiology. 3 Hours.

This course will focus on the understanding that astrobiology is concerned with the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the Universe. It investigates life in its cosmic context. Cross listed with BIOL 530. Prerequisite: Two semesters of Biology or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 437. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

This is a course designed to introduce the study of herpetology in all aspects, and is designed for Biology and science majors. Topics include the anatomy, physiology, taxonomy, systematics, natural history, distribution, ecology, and conservation of amphibians and reptiles primarily North America species with special emphasis on local Texas native species. Prerequisites: BIOL 1306, BIOL 1307, BIOL 1106, BIOL 1107.

BIOL 443. Paleozoology. 3 Hours.

This course looks at the evolution of modern animals by bringing together recent advances in genetics with the fossil record. This course will provide an evolutionary perspective on the origins of important groups of animals from single-celled organisms to modern humans through lectures, discussions, and hands-on workshops with fossils. Prerequisite: BIOL 308 or instructor permission.

BIOL 445. Virology. 3 Hours.

This course will introduce students to the biology of viruses, with a particular focus on viruses of medical importance. Topics covered will include virus structure classification, evolution, and life cycles of viruses methods used to study viruses their interaction with host cells mechanisms of pathogenicity host responses of the host to viral infection and vaccine applications in-depth study of the life cycles of the major classes of viruses and discussion of emerging viruses. Prerequisite: Two semesters of biology and BIOL 311, or instructor permission.

BIOL 446. Survey of Human Disease and Pathophysiology. 3 Hours.

This course is designed to provide the structural and functional characteristics of common and important diseases as well as the principles of diagnosis and treatment.

BIOL 447. Synthetic Biology. 3 Hours.

This course will explore the application of synthetic biology in the biomolecular sciences, looking at a range of techniques that have been used to build useful tools from biological components. We will focus on the current use of molecular bioengineering in the area of human health. This course reinforces advanced concepts in molecular biology, and would be useful for students interested in careers in medicine or pharmaceutical research. Cross-listed with BIOL 547. Prerequisite: Two semesters of biology and one semester of microbiology or approval of instructor.

BIOL 448. Vaccine and Antiviral Development. 3 Hours.

This course will focus on modern approaches to combat and immunize against dangerous viruses. Students will explore current topics in vaccine and antiviral design from proof-of-concept testing in the lab to clinical trial. This course reinforces advanced concepts in immunology, virology, and molecular biology, and would be useful for students interested in careers in health care or biomedical research. Some background knowledge of virology and/or immunology are recommended but not required. Prerequisite: Two semesters of Biology and one semester of Microbiology or approval of instructor. Some background knowledge of virology and/or immunology are recommended but not required.

BIOL 449. Vertebrate Histology. 4 Hours.

This course is the study of the cell and fundamental tissue types to include the microscopic structure of the organ systems of representative vertebrates. Emphasis will be on the relationship between microscopic structure and function. Prerequisite: Two semesters of biology, with Anatomy and Physiology recommended but not required.

BIOL 450. Limnology. 4 Hours.

This course is the study of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of the freshwater environment. Prerequisite: Two semesters of biology.

BIOL 466. Evolutionary Biology. 3 Hours.

This course covers the basic principles, mechanisms, and patterns of evolutionary biology including a historical survey of related ideas. Prerequisite: Two semesters of biology.

BIOL 470. Internship in Biology. 1-3 Hours.

This is a directed internship that provides biology students with the applications of biology related knowledge in an organization. The student receives hands-on experience under the joint guidance of a professional from an organization and a faculty supervisor. 1-3 credit hours available. May be repeated up to a maximum of 3 SCH. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

BIOL 472. Introduction to Forensic Science. 3 Hours.

This course is a study of basic concepts, techniques, practices, and procedures of criminalistics, including the most current technologies in forensic analysis. Criminal investigation of actual cases will be discussed with a minimum of scientific terminology. In addition, the course will emphasize the nature of physical evidence, including the use of DNA profiling. This course is strongly recommended for Criminal Justice majors and Pre-Allied Health track students in Biology. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing.

BIOL 473. Fundamentals of DNA Forensics. 4 Hours.

Fundamentals of DNA forensics explores the current methods of DNA typing. It encompasses current forensic DNA analysis methods, as well as biology, technology, and genetic interpretation. The course will follow the path of DNA evidence starting with sample collection and the processes of DNA extraction, quantitation, amplification, and statistical interpretation. By the end of the course, students will explore the important role of DNA evidence for law enforcement. Cross-listed with BTEC 473.

BIOL 480. Capstone in Biology. 1 Hour.

This course provides instructions on concepts in major areas in biology. Prerequisite: Senior standing.

BIOL 481. Seminar in Biology. 2 Hours.

This course requires student participation in general and specific topics in biology. May be repeated in a different topic. Prerequisite: Senior standing with Biology major.

BIOL 487. Human Parasitology. 3 Hours.

This course is designed to provide students an overview of human parasites and their diseases. Topics include morphology, taxonomy, diagnosis, treatment, modes of transmission, and control of the major parasitic organisms in humans. A large portion of the above is learned by knowing the life cycles of the parasites in question and, thus, how to break the chain of infection. Parasitology is an interdisciplinary course that encompasses the fields of pathology, immunology, ecology, entomology, epidemiology, and systematics. Therefore, you won't only learn about parasites but also gain valuable knowledge of related disciplines. Prerequisites: Successful completion of two semesters of biology or approval by instructor. It is recommended to have at least one other more specialized biology course such as General Microbiology (BIOL 311), Cell and Molecular Biology (BIOL 402) or Immunology (BIOL 425).

BIOL 489. Independent Study in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

This course provides individual instruction. Students may repeat the course when topics vary.

BIOL 490. Introduction to Biotechnology. 4 Hours.

This course will explore the principles and applications of DNA science with special reference to recombinant DNA technology. This course is highly recommended for students focusing on a career in the medical field. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing.

BIOL 497. Special Topics. 1-4 Hours.

Instructors will provide an organized class designed to cover areas of specific interest. Students may repeat the course when topics vary.

BIOL 499. Independent Research. 1-6 Hours.

Independent research in Biology conducted by a student under the guidance of a faculty member of his or her choice. The student is required to maintain a research journal and submit a project report by the end of the semester and potentially make an oral presentation on the project. SCH and hours are by arrangement and, with a change in content, this course may be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

ED 311. Growth and Development for EC to Grade 12 (EL). 3 Hours.

This is an introductory education course which presents theories of children's growth and development along with their relationship to learning and teaching. Cultural, emotional, physical, intellectual, and learning differences are studied for their impact on learning and educational opportunity. Students must be considered in their junior year and will be required to participate in 8 hours of field experience. This course integrates the principles of Experiential Learning and meets the criteria of field work.

ED 321. Foundations of Education for Secondary (EL). 3 Hours.

This course provides students seeking certification in grades 4-8 and 7-12 skills for designing instruction and assessment that promote a growth mindset and create a positive, productive classroom environment. Students will apply skills and knowledge in lesson and unit planning as well as content pedagogy specific to area of certification. Traditional as well as innovative technologies will be addressed. State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) and End of Course Exams (EOC) effective content pedagogy will be emphasized in this course. This course integrates the principles of Experiential Learning and meets the criteria for field work.

ED 331. Classroom and Behavior Management. 3 Hours.

This course presents best practices in classroom and behavior management including management of time, materials, and space. Additionally, the course examines strategies for managing individual and large-group student behaviors, transitions, lab activities, and other arrangements for classrooms in general and special education. Prerequisite: Admitted to the Teacher Preparation Program.

ED 435. Secondary Content Pedagogy. 3 Hours.

This course provides students seeking certification in grades 4-8 and 7-12 with pedagogical best-practices. Students will learn lesson planning, assessment, and available resources for their specific content area. Methods for accessing and processing information through traditional as well as new technologies will be addressed. Prerequisite: Admission to the Teacher Preparation Program.

ED 495. Block 1 - Co-Teaching Practicum for Certification Candidates (EL). 3 Hours.

This course provided clinical experience in the public school setting as part of the field experience requirements for the undergraduate Teacher Preparation Program. The Teacher Candidate is required to spend six hours per week for 12 weeks in an assigned classroom. A university field supervisor in conjunction with the cooperating teacher supervises the Clincial Teacher. Block 1 is the first semester of the co-teaching assignment (2 semesters) in which the Teacher Candidate and Cooperating Teacher are considered co-teachers for the class. Course is graded on a Satisfactory (S) or Unsatisfactory (U) basis for 3 SCH. This course integrates the principles of experiential learning and meets the criterion for internship. Prerequisite: Met admission requirements to undergraduate field based placement guidelines.

ED 496. Block 2 - Co-Teaching Practicum for Certification Candidates (EL). 3 Hours.

This course provided clinical experience in a public school setting as part of field experience requirements for the undergraduate Teacher Preparation Program. The Teacher Candidate is required to spend 72 complete instructional days in an assigned classroom. A university field supervisor in conjunction with the cooperating teacher supervises the Clinical Teacher. Block 2 is the second semester of the co-teaching assignment (2 semesters) in which Teacher Candidate and Cooperating Teacher are co-teachers for the public school class. Course graded on Satisfactory (S) or Unsatisfactory (U) basis for 3 SCH. This course integrates the principals of experiential learning and meets the criterion for internship. Prerequisite: successful completion of ED 495, continued acceptance in the public school classroom, and completion of program requirements.

ITED 350. Technology and Digital Literacy. 3 Hours.

This course is designed to assist students with developing skills for using web applications and mobile computing. The activities in the course assist students with promoting critical thinking and problem-solving skills by engaging them with digital tools being used in daily life. Topics covered include: technology in society, computers and digital components, the internet- how it works and making the most of web resources , applications for work and play, and systems software- operating systems, utilities and file management, information technology ethics, understanding and assessing hardware, digital devices and media and protection, information technology careers, software programming, databases and information systems, networking and security. There is an emphasis on using the Microsoft Office Suite of Products in this course including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access.

RDG 343. Reading Beyond the Primary Grades. 3 Hours.

This course teaches content area teachers how to help their students learn from textbooks, including techniques for evaluating both textbooks and students. Coping with the reading, demands of textbooks, and study skills will be learned.

RDG 350. Emergent Literacy Development. 3 Hours.

This course addresses the foundations and pedagogy of reading instruction to provide the pre-service EC-6 teacher with knowledge and skills necessary to promote early literacy development. Students will develop competency in the components of the science of teaching reading, including oral language development, phonological and phonemic awareness, the alphabetic principle, high frequency vocabulary development, decoding and spelling strategies, fluency development and comprehension. A variety of techniques will be examined to enable the pre-service teacher to design a multidimensional word recognition program. The targeted grade levels for this course are Early Childhood through grade two.

SPED 410. Introduction to Individual with Exceptionalities. 3 Hours.

This course develops students’ foundational knowledge of historical perspectives, educational principles, laws, and professional ethics and roles in the fields of special education and English Language Learners (ELL). It focuses on the learning and behavioral characteristics of diverse learners, including students with exceptionalities (which includes disabilities, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders, Dyslexia, and Gifted/Talented) students who are ELL and students who are Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional (CLDE) learners. Additionally, this course introduces instructional strategies, appropriate curriculum, accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology to ensure the success of all learners.

SPED 418. Research, Trends, and Issues in Education. 3 Hours.

This course presents current research, issues, and trends in education, specifically emphasizing the teaching-learning process to meet specific student learning needs. Emphasis is placed on teacher candidates integrating best practices in the teaching-learning process including: 1) Strength-based strategies, 2) Understanding by Design, 3) Differentiation, 4) Differentiation for Neurodiversity, 5) State Accountability Testing, and 6) Teacher Evaluation. Prerequisite: Admission to the Teacher Preparation Program.



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