What are the side-effects of long-term liquid breathing?

What are the side-effects of long-term liquid breathing?

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I just saw a recent Physics question that mentioned liquid breathing (which I had never heard of before) and I started to wonder about its long-term effects. Let's imagine a person underwent liquid breathing for some wacky reason - see the Wikipedia page for some starters - for a long time, maybe a month. What would begin to happen to them? Would any effects be reversible?


This is a very interesting question. The ideas behind this have been around for a while and the methods are covered in great detail elsewhere.

The overall answer to the hypothetical question is rather surprising. There may be actually potential benefits to perpetual liquid ventilation for people with certain diseases. Trials so far have not found side effects in fluorocarbon liquid breathing.

So lets talk about the history of liquid breathing and case studies, then we will move onto the hypothetical situation of liquid breathing indefinitely.

A great review (Shaffer et al, 1992) covers the field in great depth.

@MCM pointed out in the comments that my original answer did no emphasise that animal diaphragms are not powerful enough to move the liquid in and out of the lungs. I should mention now that the below cases all use ventilators to pump the fluid into and out of the lungs. The difficulty of breathing this without a ventilator is emphasised by David Blaine at 4:54 in this TED talk who said it was like trying to breathe with an elephant standing on your chest.

Case studies.

As early as the 1920s, poisonous gas research that lead to the infamous mustard gas found that lungs could tolerate large quantities of saline briefly without damage.


Kylstra, the first pioneer introducing the idea of land animals breathing liquids (Kylstra et al., 1962), found mice could withstand 4 hours of 160 atmospheres of pressure.

Clark found that mice and rats could breathe oxygen bubbled silicone oils and survive for a few hours after emersion.

In 1965, he discovered that the fluorocarbon known as FC75 not only supported respiration during total immersion but the mice survived indefinitely in apparent good health.

The most recent study I can find is the partial use of fluorocarbon liquid ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of rabbits. The same improvements in breathing were not observed in saline liquid breathing or conventional ventilators.


In humans PFCs were first used successfully in 1989 for the ventilation of young infants near death.

Marked improvement in lung compliance, without a compromise of cardiovascular status was noted in all three patients.

All three infants died of their severe preexisting respiratory complications, but the trial showed liquid breathing can support gas exchange in humans. However developing lungs of infants cannot rely on mechanical ventilators for prolonged periods as nearly a quarter of premature infants of those that do later developed chronic breathing problems.

Biomedical application.

There are a fair few researches and doctors who believe fluorocarbon liquid ventilation has some advantages over gas ventilation. It reduces stress at the area of interfacial surface tension in the distressed, surfactant-deficient lung. This would be ideal and appropriate for ARDS in human adults. A more sophisticated use would be using fluorocarbons as a drug delivery system straight to damaged lung tissue.

(All the above can be found in the 1992 review. There is also data on the different properties of suitable FCs)

Real world potential.

Is perpetual liquid breathing possible?… And healthy?

So this is where we stand with the case studies; mice can breath liquids indefinitely and stay in good health, rabbits with ARDS survive where breathable gas would not help, and there is a contingency in the biomedical community that it can be better than gas ventilation for medical treatment. To me it seems that there is nothing to suggest a fully grown adult would suffer from breathing liquids. The inertness of the fluorocarbons implies any toxicity would only reveal itself in a timescale of years, and everything else about the compounds pose no danger and may make gas transfer across the lungs easier.

This relatively modest success is perhaps no surprise. The exchange interface of our lungs relies on a mucous (liquid) so the gases can permeate the lung tissue. Expanding on that idea should certainly not rule out the possibility of liquid breathing.

The biggest drawback, besides the cost of a long term experiment and being dependent on a mechanical ventilator, is that these are very small case studies of success. Given the massive amounts of unknowns (particularly for long term studies), switching to purely liquid ventilation in an adult human could have unforeseen risks and would be considered dangerous by any ethics board (or insurance company)!

On a lighter note, here is a YouTube video of what Maddie, a biology podcaster from the BBC, had to say on the matter of living in total submersion. Lots of skin problems, risk of infection after a few days etc.

Again, a very interesting, albeit understudied, topic!

JUUL and E-Cigarette Side Effects

Common side effects of vaping include dry mouth and coughing. While the long-term side effects of vaping aren’t well known, Juul and other e-cigarettes have been linked to serious health problems, such as severe lung injuries, seizures, nicotine addiction and poisoning, and an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes.

Board-certified physicians medically review Drugwatch content to ensure its accuracy and quality.

Drugwatch partners with Physicians’ Review Network Inc. to enlist specialists. PRN is a nationally recognized leader in providing independent medical reviews.

Reviewer specialties include internal medicine, gastroenterology, oncology, orthopedic surgery and psychiatry.

The soaring popularity of JUUL has exposed potential health risks of the e-cigarettes once marketed as safer than tobacco cigarettes.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration began regulating e-cigarettes in mid-2016. Before that, little, if anything, was done to establish guidelines regarding sales, marketing and manufacturing of the popular devices and their e-liquid device counterparts.

Therefore, little was known about possible dangers, including a faulty design that contributed to lithium-ion battery explosions.

But over time, investigations have linked the devices to a number of potential health hazards.

Researchers found that users are being exposed to an assortment of potentially harmful chemicals, including nicotine and formaldehyde, as well as heavy metals, such as lead. One chemical in many flavored e-liquids, diacetyl, has been linked to an incurable lung condition known as popcorn lung.

In 2019, the FDA catalogued more than 120 reports of e-cig users having seizures or other neurological reactions since 2010.

And the FDA, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several state health departments launched an investigation into a deadly lung condition directly linked to vaping that had sickened hundreds of people and killed several more.

The U.S. Surgeon General concluded that e-cigarette users were being exposed to potentially harmful chemicals, including:

Additionally, the CDC has released data showing that e-liquid poisonings are “rapidly increasing.”

“There are several different side effects that have already been seen in terms of various lung diseases,” Dr. Joshua Mansour, a Los Angeles-based oncologist, told Drugwatch. “We also know that increased nicotine intake can cause increased heart rates, profuse sweating, dizziness, and even seizures.”

Does stevia have any side effects?

Stevia is a non-nutritive or zero-calorie sweetener made of steviol glycosides. These are compounds extracted and refined from the leaves of the Stevia rebaudiana plant.

Many people choose to replace sugar with stevia to reduce their calorie consumption. In this article, we look at the possible risks and side effects associated with this natural sweetener.

Stevia leaves are about 200 times sweeter than traditional white sugar and people have used them for centuries as a sweetener and herbal supplement.

However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) only consider high-purity steviol glycosides to be safe for human consumption currently.

Because the FDA have not approved crude stevia extracts and stevia leaves as a food additive, companies are not allowed to market them as sweetening products.

According to the FDA, the acceptable daily intake for steviol equivalents is 4 milligrams (mg) per kilogram of body weight . That equates to about 12 mg of high-purity stevia extracts per kilogram of body weight per day.

When used as a sweetener or to flavor foods, experts do not consider highly purified stevia to cause adverse side effects.

While several studies have identified potential side effects of stevia over the last few decades, most were done using laboratory animals, and many have since been disproved.

Potential side effects linked to stevia consumption include:

Kidney damage

Stevia is considered a diuretic, meaning that it increases the speed at which the body expels water and electrolytes from the body in urine. Because the kidney is responsible for filtering and creating urine, researchers initially thought that long-term consumption of stevia could damage the organ.

More recent studies, however, have concluded that stevia may help prevent kidney damage. A 2013 study carried out in a laboratory found that stevia reduced cyst growth in kidney cells.

Gastrointestinal symptoms

Some stevia products contain added sugar alcohols that may cause unpleasant symptoms in individuals that are very sensitive to the chemicals.

Although hypersensitivity to sugar alcohol is rare, its symptoms can include:

Several studies using rodent and human cell cultures have demonstrated the potential gastrointestinal benefits of steviol glycosides. Stevia use has been shown to help limit and reduce diarrhea and the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Allergic reaction

According to a 2015 review , there are very few reported cases of stevia allergy. Both the FDA and European Commission concluded that the number of individuals who are hypersensitive to stevia or at a risk of having an allergic response to it is low.

Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar

Although stevia may help control blood sugar in people with diabetes, it was also once thought that long-term or heavy stevia consumption might cause hypoglycemia or low blood sugar.

This has since been proven highly unlikely, except in individuals with abnormally low blood sugar levels.

Low blood pressure

Stevia is known to act as a vasodilator, causing the blood vessels to widen and lowering overall blood pressure. Currently, researchers have only explored the potentially positive aspects of this use.

Anything that actively lowers blood pressure can cause health complications with excessive, long-term use. People with chronic low blood pressure should speak to a doctor about prolonged stevia use.

Endocrine disruption

As a type of steroid, steviol glycosides can interfere with hormones controlled by the endocrine system. A 2016 study found that human sperm cells exposed to steviol experienced an increase in progesterone production.

Some people are at an increased risk of developing side effects from regular stevia use. This is because stevia can lower blood sugars and blood pressure, and act as a diuretic.

Stevia can also interact with certain medications, so it is important to discuss stevia with a doctor before consuming or purchasing the product.

Factors that may increase the risk of stevia side effects include:

  • blood pressure conditions and medications
  • liver conditions and medications
  • kidney conditions and medications
  • heart conditions and medications
  • hormone regulating medications
  • steroids medications

There are many different types of steviol glycoside found in stevia, classified into five major groups.

Although most of the existing research concerns the two major compounds in stevia — stevioside and rebaudioside A (reb A) — a 2016 study using human fecal samples concluded that all forms of the compound are probably safe for general use.

However, research supporting the safe use of less refined stevia compounds is still lacking. As a result, the FDA do not recognize stevia leaves and crude extracts as safe for consumption.

Increasingly, stevia supplements and extracts are being found to contain counterfeit ingredients, primarily artificial sweeteners that are linked to known health risks.

It is therefore important to buy products certified to contain at least 95 percent steviol glycoside, and that contain no artificial or synthetic sweeteners.

Common potentially harmful chemicals found in stevia products include:

When consumed at low doses, purified stevia is generally not considered to pose health risks for pregnant people.

Studies using rat embryos have established that stevia did not affect pregnancy or fertility outcomes and was non-toxic to fetal tissues.

However, some of the common counterfeit ingredients found in stevia mixtures and formulas are linked to serious complications and may cause birth abnormalities. The most notable of these ingredients is saccharin.

High doses or heavy, long-term use of stevia may worsen common pregnancy symptoms by increasing the workload on organs such as the kidneys, bladder, and heart.

Potential complications with the overuse of stevia products during pregnancy include:

  • overheating
  • low blood pressure
  • kidney dysfunction or failure
  • mood swings
  • nausea, cramping, and vomiting
  • low blood sugar

Researchers still do not understand the full range of risks associated with stevia. A 2017 review exploring health-outcomes and complications linked to zero-calorie sweeteners concluded that not enough studies had been done to make a judgment about stevia’s overall safety.

However, given the popularity of stevia, there are several large-scale, comprehensive studies working on the matter.

In a preliminary 2017 study, rats with diets comprised of up to 3.5 percent stevia for 90 days presented no clinical symptoms and experienced no change in blood chemistry, cellular function, compensation, or appearance.

How can insect venom allergies be treated in the long-term?

Allergen-specific immunotherapy (also known as desensitization) can be a helpful long-term treatment. It involves regularly injecting small doses of the insect venom under the skin. A bit like with vaccines, the immune system gradually gets used to the allergen. After a while the body no longer reacts to the insect venom in such an extreme way.

It takes three to five years to complete allergen-specific immunotherapy. In some rare cases, doctors even recommend life-long immunotherapy.

Diamox Tablet

Acetazolamide is used to prevent and reduce the symptoms of altitude sickness. This medication can decrease headache, tiredness, nausea, dizziness, and shortness of breath that can occur when you climb quickly to high altitudes (generally above 10,000 feet/3,048 meters). It is particularly useful in situations when you cannot make a slow ascent. The best ways to prevent altitude sickness are climbing slowly, stopping for 24 hours during the climb to allow the body to adjust to the new height, and taking it easy the first 1 to 2 days.This medication is also used with other medications to treat high pressure inside the eye due to certain types of glaucoma. Acetazolamide belongs to a class of drugs known as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the production of fluid inside the eye. It is also used to decrease a buildup of body fluids (edema) caused by heart failure or certain medications. Acetazolamide can work less well over time, so it is usually used only for a short period.It has also been used with other medications to treat certain types of seizures (petit mal and unlocalized seizures).

How to use Diamox Tablet

If you are taking the tablets, take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 1 to 4 times daily. If you are taking the long-acting capsules, take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 1 or 2 times daily. Swallow the long-acting capsules whole. Do not open, break, or chew the capsules. Doing so can destroy the long action of the drug and may increase side effects.

Acetazolamide may be taken with or without food. Drink plenty of fluids unless otherwise directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

To prevent altitude sickness, start taking acetazolamide 1 to 2 days before you start to climb. Continue taking it while you are climbing and for at least 48 hours after you have reached your final altitude. You may need to continue taking this medication while staying at the high altitude to control your symptoms. If you develop severe altitude sickness, it is important that you climb down as quickly as possible. Acetazolamide will not protect you from the serious effects of severe altitude sickness. (See also Precautions.)

If you are taking this drug for another condition (such as glaucoma, seizures), use this medication regularly as directed to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day. Taking your last dose in the early evening will help prevent you from having to get up in the middle of the night to urinate. Consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about your dosing schedule.

Do not increase your dose or use this drug more often or for longer than prescribed. Your condition will not improve any faster, and your risk of side effects will increase.

When used for an extended period, this medication may not work as well and may require different dosing. Your doctor will be monitoring your condition. Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it worsens (for example, you have more frequent seizures).

This drug may reduce the potassium levels in your blood. Your doctor may recommend that you eat foods rich in potassium (such as bananas or orange juice) while you are taking this medication. Your doctor may also prescribe a potassium supplement for you to take during treatment. Consult your doctor for more information.

  • You are recently taking mineral oil, until and unless directed by a doctor.
  • You are suffering from abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting.
  • You are taking this medication for longer than one week unless directed by a doctor.
  • you are allergic to the ingredients present in Docusate Sodium(Colace).

Some medical situations can interact with Docusate Sodium(Colace). Inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following mentioned below apply to you:

  • If you are expecting(pregnant), planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding your baby.
  • If you are taking any prescribed or nonprescribed medicine, herbal formula, or any dietary supplement.
  • If you have any allergies to medicines, foods, or other things.
  • If you have a history of bowel problems.
  • If you have nausea, weakness, vomiting, stomach ache, or rectal bleeding.

Some medicines can interact with Docusate Sodium(Colace). Tell your physician if you are taking any other medicines, especially mineral oil because its absorption may be increased. This may not be a complete list of all interactions that can occur. Ask your doctor if Docusate Sodium(Colace) may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your medical expert before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine without fail.

Side Effects of Docusate Sodium (Colace)

All medicines of Docusate Sodium(Colace) may cause you side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects experienced or become serious:

Common Side Effects of Docusate Sodium (Colace):

  • Diarrhea
  • Gas
  • Bloating
  • Bitter taste
  • Cramping
  • Irritation in throat
  • Irritation around rectum
  • Allergic reactions
  • Skin rashes or hives
  • Swelling of face
  • Tightness in chest
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Swelling of mouth, face lips, and tongue
  • Dizziness

This is not a complete list of all the common side effects of Docusate Sodium(Colace) that can occur. If you have any questions about the side effects of Docusate Sodium(Colace), contact your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about the side effects.

Serious Side Effects of Docusate Sodium(Colace):

  • Wheezing
  • Rashes on face
  • Itching in belly
  • Severe stomach ache
  • Persistent diarrhea
  • Abdominal problems
  • Allergic reactions

Short Term Side Effects of Docusate Sodium (Colace):

Short term side effects generally disappear in two to three days. Below listed are the short-term side effects of Docusate Sodium(Colace):

  • Gas
  • Persistent Diarrhea
  • Swelling
  • Numbness in hands and legs
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain

Long Term Side Effects of Docusate Sodium (Colace):

  • Stomach Ache: If you are taking Docusate Sodium(Colace) from the long time, you may go through stomach ache.
  • Upset Stomach: Long term consumption of Docusate Sodium(Colace) can make your tummy upset.
  • Diarrhea: Docusate Sodium(Colace) can make you feel bowel movements in your stomach.
  • Stomach Cramps: Cramps in your stomach may be felt with the long-term use of Docusate Sodium(Colace).
  • Shortness of Breath: An individual may feel uneven breathing with the intake of this medicine for long term.

Side Effects

An increase in stomach gas or bloating may occur. If this effect persists or worsens, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: signs of infection (such as high fever, chills, persistent cough).

A very serious allergic reaction to this product is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Is Zeolite Safe for Human Consumption?

Inhalation of cellular zeolite dust and its constituents has been linked to a higher risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis, according Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 23. Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic respiratory disease that is indicated by a scarring or thickening of the walls of your lungs 3. Scarring of lung tissue is permanent and may lead to difficulty breathing, chest pain, and chronic coughing. Currently, it is unknown how zeolites interact with your lung tissue to cause pulmonary fibrosis however, it may be related to the carcinogenic properties of the mineral compounds that make up zeolite dust 3.

CBD Oil Side Effects

First, it is important to remember that CBD oil is considered experimental and investigational and far more clinical studies are needed before we can make any firm conclusions about its supposed benefits [1].

Similarly, it&rsquos an insufficiently investigated supplement with a relatively unknown safety profile. The list of side effects listed in this article is, therefore, not a definite one.

So, make sure to speak with your doctor before starting on a CBD oil regimen.

With the recent legalization of CBD oil in many states worldwide, its popularity is booming and people are taking it for not only its FDA-approved use for seizures, but also conditions such as [2]:

An advantage of CBD oil is that it&rsquos considered generally safer and causes fewer adverse effects than the drugs typically used for these conditions. Chronic doses of up to 1500 mg/day were tolerated well in multiple studies [3+, 4].

Unlike THC, CBD doesn&rsquot cause behavioral and psychological side effects. What&rsquos more, it may even reduce some of them such as anxiety, psychosis, and memory loss [5, 6, 7, 8].

Nevertheless, there are some potential side effects of CBD oil that you should watch out for. Below is a detailed overview of the most common ones.

1) Dry Mouth

Whether you use them for recreational or medicinal purposes, cannabis products will often make your mouth feel as if it were stuffed with cotton balls. Almost 12% of 1500 people responding to a survey about CBD use experienced dry mouth, making it the most common adverse effect [2].

Stimulation of the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the salivary glands reduces saliva secretion, which makes the mouth feel dry. The well-known cannabis compound THC activates these receptors directly. In turn, CBD raises the levels of an activator naturally produced in the body &ndash the cannabinoid anandamide [9, 10, 11, 12].

2) Digestive Issues

Both CBD oil supplements and the FDA-approved CBD medicine Epidiolex have been reported to cause digestive issues such as [2, 4]:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Increased or reduced appetite
  • Weight loss or gain

Because preliminary research suggests that CBD improves rather than causes nausea and diarrhea, these effects most likely result from the irritating effects of other ingredients (e.g., carrier oils) on the bowels [13, 14, 15].

Alternatively, the loose regulation of supplements may allow for excessive CBD levels in products or harmful contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, and solvents [16+, 17].

In turn, the endocannabinoid system has a role in promoting appetite. The mixed effects of CBD on appetite and weight seen in different studies may be due to its dual effect: it blocks the CB1 and CB2 receptors but boosts the levels of their activator anandamide [18, 19, 11].

If you experience digestive issues from using CBD oil, tell your doctor. He or she may recommend reducing the dose or shifting to another brand.

3) Drowsiness and Fatigue

People taking CBD oil often report feeling sleepy and tired. Indeed, this side effect was observed in early clinical trials and one of the most common uses of CBD oil is to improve sleep disorders [20+].

If the symptoms are very severe, you shouldn&rsquot drive or operate heavy machinery.

The effect of CBD on sleep seems to be biphasic: high doses may increase sleeping time, lower amounts may promote wakefulness. Additionally, levels of endocannabinoid receptors depend on the circadian rhythm. This may explain why CBD tends to cause drowsiness later in the day but has the opposite effect in the morning [21, 22, 23].

4) Dizziness

High doses of CBD lowered blood pressure in a small trial on 9 people. In turn, THC seems to have a more complex effect: it slightly raises blood pressure in people lying down but increases the risk of sudden blood pressure drops when standing up [24, 25+].

As a result, a common adverse effect of CBD &ndash both alone and with equal amounts of THC (nabiximols) &ndash is feeling dizzy and light-headed [26, 27, 28].

If your blood pressure drops too much, you may faint. The risk is especially high in people diagnosed with low blood pressure or on blood pressure medications &ndash such as diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and beta-blockers. These people should be especially cautious with CBD oil and never try it out without discussing it with their doctor.

5) Possible Liver Damage

Several trials testing CBD for seizures found possible liver damage (high transaminases ALT and AST) in 9-25% of the people. The risk increased with the dose and was highest in people also taking the anti-seizure drug valproate, which is known to cause liver injuries [29+, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34].

Similarly, CBD caused signs of liver toxicity (high transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin) in mice and dogs. However, the doses were generally higher than those used in human trials [35, 36, 37].

Make sure to talk to your doctor, especially if you are taking valproate, and never exceed the recommended CBD oil dose to reduce your risk of liver damage.

6) Irritability

CBD is often used to curb anxiety, although research suggests it has &ldquoinverted U-shaped&rdquo effects: moderate doses, but not low or high amounts, may be effective for a range of anxiety disorders and stressful situations [38, 39].

In contrast, very high doses may even trigger anxiety and irritability. This was the case in 7-9% of the children in 2 clinical trials using CBD for seizures and autism [40, 41].

The effect probably involves the TRPV1 receptor, the activation of which increases the brain&rsquos response to stressful situations [42].

CBD boosts the naturally-produced cannabinoid anandamide. While moderate anandamide levels activate CB1 receptors and curb anxiety, high amounts may worsen it by binding to TRPV1. CBD also activates this receptor directly, further contributing to the potential anxiety-triggering effects [43, 44, 11, 45].

7) Immune Suppression

CBD may reduce the immune response. It prevents T cells from dividing, migrating to inflammation sites, and producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. This may be beneficial in people with autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis [46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52].

The downside of blocking the immune response is that it may make people with weakened immune systems more prone to infections. Thus, people on immunosuppressants or with conditions such as HIV, diabetes, and Down syndrome might want to avoid it [53].

Kidney Health

CBD didn&rsquot damage the kidneys in clinical trials. In fact, researchers believed it protected against kidney injury and inflammation in numerous animal studies [54, 55, 56, 57, 58]. Remember that larger and better designed clinical trials are needed before these findings are conclusive.

Though more clinical trials are needed, the current evidence suggests CBD oil will not harm your kidneys at normal doses.

On the other hand, people with kidney disease should probably avoid THC-containing medical marijuana without consulting a doctor.

According to a recent review, THC may worsen kidney health and increase urination by activating CB1 receptors. Remember that, unlike THC, CBD blocks these receptors. However, CBD may indirectly activate them by increasing anandamide levels in the body [59+].

Lastly, avoid synthetic cannabinoids at all costs (products like &ldquospice&rdquo and &ldquoK2&rdquo sold in smoke shops). These chemicals caused sudden and severe kidney injury in several cases [59+].

Long-Term Effects of Oxycodone

One of the long-term effects of oxycodone is addiction that is characterized by greater dependence on the drug and tolerance to the dosage. Tolerance to a drug means that you must take more and more of the medication to get the same early effect.

After long-term use of oxycodone, men may also experience a decreased level of testosterone or enlargement of the prostate. Other long-term effects include excessive sweating, swelling in the arms and legs, and chronic constipation.

Because chronic use leads to tolerance and dependence, you may experience withdrawal symptoms if a prescription is reduced or stopped 1. These withdrawal symptoms can involve signs of central nervous system hyperactivity and will peak 48 to 72 hours after your last dose. Physical symptoms will be eliminated within a week but it may take longer to erase the psychological addiction.

Withdrawal from oxycodone will begin with anxiety followed by an increased rate of breathing, runny nose, stomach cramps, tearing and sweating. Although withdrawal from oxycodone is distressing it is not fatal.


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