Articles

Tetanus


It is a serious infection caused by the toxin of a bacterium called clostridium, which enters the body through skin lesions such as cuts, scratches, animal bites. Tetanus is not a contagious disease.

How do you get it?

The bacterium is found in the feces of animals or humans that deposit in the sand or the earth. Infection occurs through the entry of bacteria by any kind of skin injury contaminated with sand or earth. Burns and necrotic tissues are also the gateway to the bacteria.


Rusty materials are great tetanus transmitters

What do you feel?

The bacterial toxin causes muscle spasms, initially in the neck and chewing muscles (trismus and sardonic laughter), causing progressive stiffness until it reaches the respiratory muscles.

Complications are severe and the infected person needs to be admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

Incubation time ranges from 2 to 21 days; The smaller the number of days, the greater the severity.

How is the diagnosis made?

For clinical symptoms and history of skin lesions without proper treatment.

How is it?

The treatment consists of:

  • general care not to stimulate the patient by keeping him in the dark and with little noise,
  • use of antibiotics, sedatives and muscle relaxants,
  • wound cleaning and
  • application of anti-tetanus serum.

How to prevent?

Prevention is mainly done by vaccination of the population, routine and reinforcements every 10 years.

The population should also be taught that all soiled wounds, open fractures, animal bites and burns must be well cleaned and treated properly so as not to proliferate the bacteria through the body.